- Compare and contrast anaerobic cellular respiration and aerobic cellular respiration. Address glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, lactic acid fermentation, alcohol fermentation, NADH, FADH2, and ATP.
- Well, first off oxygen is required for oxidative phosphorylation to work properly because without it the electron transport chain does not function. Oxidative phosphorylation produces the most ATP in cellular respiration, but in some organisms like yeast, the primary source of energy is glycolysis, which can still occur without oxygen. Glycolysis basically works by taking away electrons from the sugar glucose and using that energy to attach an inorganic phosphate to ATP. Glycolysis will still always occur if the electron acceptor is still present. The main acceptor in glycolysis is NAD+. When oxygen is present, NAD+ is pretty much recycled and its electrons are removed in oxidative phosphorylation, but because there isn’t any oxygen oxidative phosphorylation cannot function. So as an alternative method, the organism undergoes fermentation instead of glycolysis. The end products of glycolysis are ethanol in alcohol fermentation and in lactic acid fermentation it is lactic acid. These end products now become the electron acceptors, which cycles NADH back into NAD+ and allows for glycolysis to keep occurring and cycling through.
- Explain why the disruption of chemiosmosis and the proton motive force can be detrimental to eukaryotic organisms. Provide real life example.
- Chemiosmosis is the diffusion of H+ ions through ATP. Eukaryotes need a lot of energy in order for their cellular processes to function well. If the diffusion of H+ ions stops oxidative phosphorylation will not occur, and the cell will be producing far too little ATP to power the cellular process of eukaryotic cells. This leads, ultimately, to the death of the cell. In class we learned about a good example of this happening in real life. We learned about a case in which tylenol was laced with cyanide and it lead to many deaths in Chicago. Basically what went down was that the cyanide disrupted the electron transport chain by binding the oxygen and creating a buildup of H+ ions. This lead to death because even though you have oxygen in your blood, the cyanide made it so the oxygen could not do its job.
- Compare and contrast obligate and facultative anaerobes.
- Facultative anaerobes can do both anaerobic and aerobic respiration, but if the mitochondria is not producing enough ATP, it may need to do more anaerobic respiration. Obligate anaerobes can only perform anaerobic respiration which is usually due to the fact that they do not have a mitochondria.
- Identify which molecules have been oxidized and reduced. Also identify the reducing agent and oxidizing agent.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY
The oxidizing agent is the glucose, the reduction agent is the oxygen, and carbon dioxide is being oxidized and water is being reduced. I know this because OIL RIG.